|Title||Estimating the Burden - Nonfatal and Fatal Drowning in Recreational Water Sites - US 2001-2002|
|Publication Type||Conference Paper|
|Year of Publication||2007|
|Authors||Gilchrist, J, Thomas, K, Ryan, G, Branche, C|
|Conference Name||World Conference on Drowning Prevention|
|Publisher||International Life Saving Federation|
|Conference Location||Porto, Portugal|
Context: In the U.S., drowning is the seventh leading cause of unintentional injury deaths for all ages and the second leading cause of all injury deaths in children aged 1--14 years. Many of these injuries occur in recreational water settings, including pools, spas/hot tubs, and natural water settings (e.g., lakes, rivers, or oceans).
Methods: To examine the incidence and characteristics of nonfatal and fatal unintentional drownings in recreational water settings, we analyzed 2001--2002 data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System All Injury Program and National Vital Statistics System death certificate data from 2001.
Results: During 2001--2002, an estimated 4,174 persons on average per year were treated in U.S. hospital emergency departments for nonfatal unintentional drowning injuries in recreational water settings. Approximately 53% of persons required hospitalization or transfer for more specialized care. During 2001, a total of 3,372 persons suffered fatal unintentional drownings in recreational settings. Nonfatal and fatal injury rates were highest for children aged <4 years and for males of all ages.
Discussion/Implications: Recommendations to reduce the number of drownings include increased use of environmental protections (e.g., isolation pool-fences and lifeguards) and training of all participants, caregivers, and supervisors in swimming/water-safety skills and cardiopulmonary resuscitation.
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