|Title||ILS: How, Who and What were the impact on Brazil?|
|Publication Type||Conference Paper|
|Year of Publication||2007|
|Authors||Dr Szpilman, MD, D, Goulart, PM, Mocellin, O, da Silva, A, Guaiano, OP, Barros, M, Alves, AS, Morato, SMÃÂ¡rcio, Cerqueira, SJ, Vilela, JJÃÂ© M, Smicelato, CE, de AraÃƒÂºjo, RT, Pedroso, JP, KrÃƒÂ¼ger, LÃÂs, Barros, E, Cerqueira, A, Sales, RÃÂ´muloC, da Silva, NS|
|Conference Name||World Conference on Drowning Prevention|
|Publisher||International Life Saving Federation|
|Conference Location||Porto, Portugal|
Lifesaving in Brazil was started officially in 1918, in Rio de Janeiro City, by Commodore Wilbert Longfellow from American Red Cross. Since then, lifeguards number has increased yearly to become one of the largest group of water safety professionals on duty in the world, now a days almost all from the firefighter service. Even though, it was only in 1994, at Wales United Kingdom, that Brazil officially made contact with a world lifesaving organization and curiously was exactly the time when FIS and WLS merged into the International Lifesaving Federation (ILS). The result was a great motivation to the foundation of Brazilian Lifesaving Society – SOBRASA. The objective of this Paper is to demonstrate the impact ILS has had on lifesaving in Brazil since then.
Methods: SOBRASA numbered, titled and gave a brief summary of all kind of events on lifesaving to which ILS may have some influence directly or indirectly with their ideas, organizations or accomplishments and the estimated number of people involved who in turn would possibly assist reduce drowning. Direct involvement means the person joining the event. Indirect involvement means the person can receive some information from a person involved directly and/or from broadcast media. To reduce the possibility of error on the estimates of indirect involvement, we underestimated using the following formulas: If no media, the estimate was calculated by [number people directly involved X 3 (family or close friends)]. If media were used, we used for local (L), [number people directly involved X 5], regional(R) X 10 or national (N) X 20.
Results: Events and the number of people involved directly or indirectly by ILS are shown on table 1 (See Annexes).
Discussion: Quantifying the impact from some action is a very difficult task to accomplish. In this study, there are at least 10 to 30 confounding factors that make it almost impossible to attribute improvements on Brazilian lifesaving just from ILS. The best end point in this subject would be to measure the reduction of drowning in Brazil from 1995 to now, but this cannot be done without producing bias when only correlating to ILS influence. Even though, there are improvements that were considered a landmark on Brazilian lifesaving, i.e; the motivation produced by ILS to gather all the experts and professionals lifeguards in one Brazilian organization - SOBRASA. This unique action must have resulted in immeasurable but important reduction on drowning mortality since 1995. A recently completed drowning survey shows that when Brazil joined the ILS, it has reduced the national rate of death by drowning by 23%. This means that each year there are 800 less deaths by drowning per year. This reduction, other than many different actions taken by different lifeguard firefighter services alone, has to be a result of the impact of ILS on SOBRASA, directly over 88,217 and indirectly over 661,000 Brazilians. Brazil was the seed and ILS was the water, and this relationship is flourishing as a result.
|Learning Outcomes|| |
Table 1 - Events involvement and their directly or indirectly influence by ILS from 1995 to 2006;